Camille Erlanger (25 May 1863 – 24 April 1919) was a Parisian-born French opera composer. He studied at the Paris Conservatory under Léo Delibes (composition), Georges Mathias (piano), as well as Émile Durand and Antoine Taubon (harmony). In 1888 he won the Prix de Rome for his cantata Velléda. His most famous opera, Le Juif polonais, was produced at the Opéra-Comique in 1900.
Erlanger died in Paris and was buried in the Père Lachaise Cemetery. A street in Quebec City, Avenue Erlanger, is named after Erlanger.