The Potsdam Declaration is a surrender recommendation to Japan by the Allies led by the United States, announced on July 26, 1945, after Germany and Italy surrendered and the defeat of Japan became clearly unavoidable. There is no such humiliating document for us, Japanese, as defeated citizens, but the composer would like to revisit it, considering that it is a critical point of the modern history since Matthew Calbraith Perry's visit in Uraga, Japan, to require Japan to open a port for their whale hunting. The background of this Declaration includes, among others, the progress of the development of the atomic bomb in the United States (the President of the United States President Truman received a report of success of the experiment at Potsdam during the meeting period), the Far East policy of the Soviet Union, and plans and speculations of the Allies countries post-war power situation. While the “Declaration” describes democratic ideals, it reveals the power relationships and conflicts among all the super powers at the time. In composing, the composer focused on delivering the text to the audience as clearly as possible. With baritone’s text recitation, trumpet and piano play a role of shamisen against katari in Gidayu (although it is only an image). The text was translated from the original Declaration by the composer specifically for this composition. The text partly omits the original for clarity and musical requirements. The part following the text of the Potsdam Declaration is also the one that the composer transcribed from historical facts.